This Technical Overview discusses how time is distributed over the network, how Time Error affects network performance, and methods to mitigate Time Error to ensure accurate timing and synchronization throughout the network.
Technical brief acting as a primer for the G.8273.2 test plan Topics included: Introduction to Clocks, Packet-based Clocks Packet-based Clocks Packet-based Clocks, Boundary Clocks for Full Timing Support, Further reading.
Issues that need to be considered for accurate Time Error results including comment on 1pps measurements, 1588 Time Error measurement, T-BC model, Polarity of T-BC inaccuracies and a summary of T-BC inaccuracies.
One of the most prevalent protocols for industrial time transfer is Precision Time Protocol (PTP). PTP offers dependable, high-accuracy time synchronization of multiple clocks over Ethernet networks enabling real-time systems and applications.
The accuracy of Telecom Time Slave Clocks (T-TSCs) is essential to the successful roll-out of LTE-A and TDD-LTE. To meet the new G.8273.2 compliance limits, T-TSCs must meet a very stringent constant Time-Error (cTE) limit of 20 or 50 nanoseconds.
This Test Guide shows how the Calnex Paragon-100G can be used to test T-BC compliance as per G.8273.2 and provides procedures to measure noise generation, tolerance & transfer in addition to packet layer transient response and holdove performance.
The issues that need to be considered and some tips on how to ensure the uncertainty due to cable delay is minimised when performing high accuracy Time Error measurements. Down at the ns level it is important to consider the cabling in all test set ups.